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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE BLAST FURNACE,
83
per cent., with no effect upon the physical qualities. Chromium is also easily reduced, but is uncommon, and, as it causes brittleness, the pig-iron is unmarketable. Titanium is partly reduced, and
TABLE II-I. Composition of Various Pig-Irons and Spiegels.
"Sp.	Chemical Composition, Per Cent.								
£!	Fe	Graph ite.	Comb. Carb.	Si	P	S	Mn	Kind of Iron.	Authority.
1 2	92.87 92.81	8.52 2.99	0.18 0.37	2.44 2.52	1.25 1.08	.02 ,02	.28 .72	No. 1 Gray, No. 2 Gray,	} Hart man. Jour.Frank,
8 4	94.66 94.48	2.50 2.02	1.52 1.98	.72 .56	.26 .19	tr. .08	.34 .67	No. 3 GrV, Mottled,	Inst., Vol. CXXXIV,
5	94.68		8.88	.41	.04	.02	.98	White,	p. 182.
6	.		4.27	1.10			8.11	Spiegel,	
7		....	4.78	.52			19.74	IT	
8			5.68	.42			41.82	Ferro-manganese,	
9			6.58	.97	. . .		80.04		
10 11			7.20 8.56	.14 4.90			80.04 23.90	Silioo-spiegel,	Hadfleld,
12 18			2.E6 1.85	4.20 10.74			50.00 19.64		• J. and 8. i.,
		.88							
14		.67	.98	12.60			19.74		PQOft
15		MiO	.80	15.94			24.36		* £ff)i
10		2.85	.05	8.77			2.42	Ferro-silicon,	
17		1.85	.06	11.20			2.78		
18		1.20	.23	14.00			1.95	«	
)fl			.H	17.RO			l.(17	"	
some irons contain one per cent, or more, but this element is undesirable to the steel maker. Vanadium, arsenic and many other elements are often present in iron where their presence is not suspected, but in quantities so minute as to be harmless. The composition of various pig-irons and spiegels is shown in Table II-I.
SEO. IIx.—The structure of cast-iron.—The structure of cast-iron has been thoroughly investigated by Prof. Howe. He argues that pig-iron and steel form a continuous series; that steel is a grade of cast-iron, and cast-iron a grade of steel. It is well known that steel is a mixture or alloy of two components, ferrite and ce-mentite; but these two substances combine together in one definite proportion, and in one proportion only, to form pearlite. The proportion is seven parts of ferrite to one of cementite, so that pearlite contains about 0.80 per cent, of carbon. Steel or iron containing more than 0.80 per cent, of carbon cannot all be pearlite, but the pearlite which is present will contain, if the metal is cooled slowly, the full quantity of carbon represented by 0.80 per cent, of the mass, and the rest of the carbon will exist in some other form;